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Aztec Rain Dance

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The priestly and bureaucratic classes were involved in the administration of the empire, while at the bottom of society were classes of serfs, indentured servants, and outright slaves.

Aztec religion was syncretistic, absorbing elements from many other Mesoamerican cultures. At base, it shared many of the cosmological beliefs of earlier peoples, notably the Maya , such as that the present earth was the last in a series of creations and that it occupied a position between systems of 13 heavens and 9 underworlds.

Closely entwined with Aztec religion was the calendar, on which the elaborate round of rituals and ceremonies that occupied the priests was based.

The Aztec calendar was the one common to much of Mesoamerica, and it comprised a solar year of days and a sacred year of days; the two yearly cycles running in parallel produced a larger cycle of 52 years.

The Aztec empire was still expanding, and its society still evolving, when its progress was halted in by the appearance of Spanish explorers.

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Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The Aztec s are also known as Mexica or Tenochca. A major characteristic of the Postclassic, in contrast to the Classic, is the abundant historical documentation.

Additionally, Tlaloc is thought to be one of the patron deities of the trecena of 1 Quiahuitl along with Chicomecoatl.

Trecenas are the thirteen-day periods into which the day calendar is divided. The first day of each trecena dictates the augury, or omen, and the patron deity or deities associated with the trecena.

In Aztec mythic cosmography, Tlaloc ruled the fourth layer of the upper world, or heavens, which is called Tlalocan "place of Tlaloc" in several Aztec codices, such as the Vaticanus A and Florentine codices.

Described as a place of unending springtime and a paradise of green plants, Tlalocan was the destination in the afterlife for those who died violently from phenomena associated with water, such as by lightning, drowning, and water-borne diseases.

The Nahua believed that Huitzilopochtli could provide them with fair weather for their crops and they placed an image of Tlaloc, who was the rain-god, near him so that if necessary, the war god could compel the rain maker to exert his powers.

Tlaloc was also associated with the world of the dead and with the earth. Richard Andrews interprets it as "one that lies on the land," identifying Tlaloc as a cloud resting on the mountaintops.

In the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan , one of the two shrines on top of the Great Temple was dedicated to Tlaloc. The high priest who was in charge of the Tlaloc shrine was called " Quetzalcoatl Tlaloc Tlamacazqui.

In this area, a bowl was kept in which sacrificial hearts were placed on certain occasions, as offerings to the rain gods.

Here the Aztec ruler would come and conduct important ceremonies annually. Additionally, throughout the year, pilgrims came to the mountain and offered precious stones and figures at the shrine.

Many of the offerings found here also related to water and the sea. The Tlalocan-bound dead were not cremated as was customary, but instead they were buried in the earth with seeds planted in their faces and blue paint covering their foreheads.

Their bodies were dressed in paper and accompanied by a digging stick for planting put in their hands.

The second shrine on top of the main pyramid at Tenochtitlan was dedicated to Tlaloc. Sacrifices and rites took place in these temples.

Mount Tlaloc was situated directly east of the pyramid. It was forty-four miles away, with a long road connecting the two places of worship.

On Mount Tlaloc, there was a shrine containing stone images of the mountain itself and other neighboring peaks. The shrine was called Tlalocan , in reference to the paradise.

Also, the shrine contained four pitchers containing water. Each pitcher would produce a different fate if used on crops: the first would bring forth a good harvest, the second would cause the harvest to fail and rot, the third would dry the harvest out, and the final one would freeze it.

Sacrifices that took place on Mount Tlaloc were thought to favor early rains. The Atlcahualo festivals was celebrated from 12 February until 3 March.

Dedicated to the Tlaloque, this veintena involved the sacrifice of children on sacred mountaintops, like Mount Tlaloc. The children were beautifully adorned, dressed in the style of Tlaloc and the Tlaloque.

The children to be sacrificed were carried to Mount Tlaloc on litters strewn with flowers and feathers, while also being surrounded by dancers.

Once at the shrine, the children's hearts would be pulled out by priests. If, on the way to the shrine, these children cried, their tears were viewed as positive signs of imminent and abundant rains.

Every Atlcahualo festival, seven children were sacrificed in and around Lake Texcoco in the Aztec capital. The festival of Tozoztontli 24 March — 12 April similarly involved child sacrifice.

During this festival, the children were sacrificed in caves. The flayed skins of sacrificial victims that had been worn by priests for the last twenty days were taken off and placed in these dark, magical caverns.

The winter veintena of Atemoztli 9 December — 28 December was also dedicated to the Tlaloque. This period preceded an important rainy season, so statues were made out of amaranth dough.

Their teeth were pumpkin seeds and their eyes, beans. Once these statues were offered copal, fine scents, and other food items, while they were also prayed to and adorned with finery.

Afterwards, their doughy chests were opened, their "hearts" taken out, before their bodies were cut up and eaten. On the final day of the "veintena," people celebrated and held banquets.

Tlaloc was also worshipped during the Huey Tozotli festival, which was celebrated annually. While Tlaloc is not normally associated with Huey Tozotli, evidence from the Codex Borbonicus indicates that Tlaloc was worshipped during this festival.

Tlaloc was linked to the regenerative capacity of weather, and, as such, he was worshipped at Mount Tlaloc because much of the rain in Central Mexico is formed over range of which Mount Tlaloc is a part.

Archaeological evidence indicates Tlaloc was worshiped in Mesoamerica before the Aztecs even settled there in the 13th century AD.

He was a prominent god in Teotihuacan at least years before the Aztecs. Chalchiuhtlicue, or "she of the jade skirt" in Nahutatl, was the deity connected with the worship of ground water.

Therefore, her shrines were by springs, streams, irrigation ditches, or aqueducts, the most important of these shrines being at Pantitlan, in the center of Lake Texcoco.

Sometimes described as Tlaloc's sister, Chalchiuhtlicue was impersonated by ritual performers wearing the green skirt that was associated with Chalchiuhtlicue.

Like that of Tlaloc, her cult was linked to the earth, fertility and nature's regeneration. Tlaloc was first married to the goddess of flowers, Xochiquetzal , which literally translates to "Flower Quetzal.

In doing so, she is associated with pregnancies and childbirths and was believed to act as a guardian figure for new mothers. Unlike many other female deities, Xochiquetzal maintains her youthful appearance and is often depicted in opulent attire and gold adornments.

Tlaloc was the father of Tecciztecatl , possibly with Chalchiuhtlicue. Tlaloc had an older sister named Huixtocihuatl. There is a sanctuary found atop Mount Tlaloc, dedicated to the god, Tlaloc; it is thought that the location of this sanctuary in relation to other temples surrounding it may have been a way for the Aztecs to mark the time of year and keep track of important ceremonial dates.

Archaeological, ethnohistoric, and ethnographic data indicate that these phenomena coincide with the sowing of maize in dry lands associated with agricultural sites.

It also features a structure that housed a statue of Tlaloc in addition to idols of many different religious regions, such as the other sacred mountains.

It rises over two diffierent ecological zones: alpine meadows and subalpine forests. The rainy season starts in May and lasts until October.

The highest annual temperature occurs in April, the onset of the rainy season, and the lowest in December—January.

Some years ago weather conditions were slightly more severe, but the best time to climb the mountain was practically the same as today: October through December, and February until the beginning of May.

The date of the feast of Huey Tozotli celebrated atop Mount Tlaloc coincided with a period of the highest annual temperature, shortly before dangerous thunderstorms might block access to the summit.

The first detailed account of Mount Tlaloc by Jim Rickards in was followed by visits or descriptions by other scholars.

In Wicke and Horcasitas carried out preliminary archaeological investigations at the site; their conclusions were repeated by Parsons in Archaeo-astronomical research began in , some of which remains unpublished.

In excavation was undertaken at the site by Solis and Townsend. Contemporary artist Jesse Hernandez has interpreted Tlaloc in his "Urban Aztec" style at several points throughout his career, including hand-painted upon a 16" Qee in , as a painting titled Rain God in , and as a factory-produced Dunny with Kidrobot in It was a plan developed by Nozama Pharmacy's Reika Mizusawa to use a manufactured chemical pesticide deployed by flying robot drones mixed with rain water to destroy all the Amazons in a genocidal assault, similar to Tlaloc's ability to send down rain.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Tlaloc. For the fish genus, see Tlaloc fish.

Richard Introduction to Classical Nahuatl revised ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. To him was attributed the rain; for he made it, he caused it to come down, he scattered the rain like seed, and also the hail.

He caused to sprout, to blossom, to leaf out, to bloom, to ripen, the trees, the plants, our food.

Garden History. Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor. Time-Life Books. Colonial Latin American Review. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Becoming Petrified: the Making of Archaeological Personhood. Mexico City: Sternberg Press. The Art Bulletin. Water History.

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Unlike many other female deities, Xochiquetzal maintains her youthful appearance and is often depicted in opulent attire and gold adornments.

Tlaloc was the father of Tecciztecatl , possibly with Chalchiuhtlicue. Tlaloc had an older sister named Huixtocihuatl.

There is a sanctuary found atop Mount Tlaloc, dedicated to the god, Tlaloc; it is thought that the location of this sanctuary in relation to other temples surrounding it may have been a way for the Aztecs to mark the time of year and keep track of important ceremonial dates.

Archaeological, ethnohistoric, and ethnographic data indicate that these phenomena coincide with the sowing of maize in dry lands associated with agricultural sites.

It also features a structure that housed a statue of Tlaloc in addition to idols of many different religious regions, such as the other sacred mountains.

It rises over two diffierent ecological zones: alpine meadows and subalpine forests. The rainy season starts in May and lasts until October.

The highest annual temperature occurs in April, the onset of the rainy season, and the lowest in December—January. Some years ago weather conditions were slightly more severe, but the best time to climb the mountain was practically the same as today: October through December, and February until the beginning of May.

The date of the feast of Huey Tozotli celebrated atop Mount Tlaloc coincided with a period of the highest annual temperature, shortly before dangerous thunderstorms might block access to the summit.

The first detailed account of Mount Tlaloc by Jim Rickards in was followed by visits or descriptions by other scholars. In Wicke and Horcasitas carried out preliminary archaeological investigations at the site; their conclusions were repeated by Parsons in Archaeo-astronomical research began in , some of which remains unpublished.

In excavation was undertaken at the site by Solis and Townsend. Contemporary artist Jesse Hernandez has interpreted Tlaloc in his "Urban Aztec" style at several points throughout his career, including hand-painted upon a 16" Qee in , as a painting titled Rain God in , and as a factory-produced Dunny with Kidrobot in It was a plan developed by Nozama Pharmacy's Reika Mizusawa to use a manufactured chemical pesticide deployed by flying robot drones mixed with rain water to destroy all the Amazons in a genocidal assault, similar to Tlaloc's ability to send down rain.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Tlaloc. For the fish genus, see Tlaloc fish. Richard Introduction to Classical Nahuatl revised ed.

Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. To him was attributed the rain; for he made it, he caused it to come down, he scattered the rain like seed, and also the hail.

He caused to sprout, to blossom, to leaf out, to bloom, to ripen, the trees, the plants, our food. Garden History. Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor.

Time-Life Books. Colonial Latin American Review. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Becoming Petrified: the Making of Archaeological Personhood.

Mexico City: Sternberg Press. The Art Bulletin. Water History. Thames and Hudson Inc. The Myths of Mexico and Peru. May History of Religions.

Aztecs at Mexicolor. Retrieved 20 October Carrasco, David Paperback ed. Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado.

Andrews, J. Brown, Dale M. Aztec ceremonial landscapes. CS1 maint: others link Curtis, Nick December 14, CoART Magazine.

Newburgh, NY. Retrieved December 14, Noticias del Dia. Sala de Prensa. Archived from the original on 30 January Granziera, Patrizia Winter Iwaniszewski, Stanislaw; Iwaniszewski, Stanislaw June Latin American Antiquity.

Jackson, Robert Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist. Fire festival. The Aztec people had two calendars, The Xiuhpohualli and the Tonalpohualli.

The Xiuhpolualli was a days year calendar, there were 18 months each with 20 days, then 5 unlucky days were added to bring it up to The Tonalpohualli was considered to be the scared calendar.

There were thirteen numbers and 20 signs, each sign was assigned each of the thirteen numbers. So was the total number of days in a year 13x Both calendars would align every 52 years, the Aztecs believed that this could bring disaster on the world so they held a very special festival the new fire festival.

This was said to be one of the most important festivals for the Aztecs. Every fire would be put out and everbody would climb up on top of their houses to watch.

The priests would dress up and climb the sacred mountain Uixachtlan. To honor the sacrifice of the gods, man, too, had to sacrifice his blood and life.

To this end, most Mesoamerican cultures featured human sacrifice, and most Aztecs went to the sacrifice willingly. We will discuss this in greater detail in another article.

Not every great ceremony or ritual required human sacrifice. In some Aztec rituals, priests and laymen would cut themselves and offer their blood to the gods.

In others, small birds or other creatures were sacrificed. Nevertheless, many Aztec ceremonies required human victims. One representative ceremony happened in spring, Tlacaxipehualiztli, which honored the god of vegetation, Xipe Totec.

This fertility ritual required the sacrifice of captured warriors. Their skin was flayed from them after death, and the priests of Xipe Totec wore these human skins for the 20 days of the ceremony, which also featured gladiatorial battles and military ceremonies.

In a May ceremony called Toxcatl, an individual was chosen to represent Tezcatlipoca, the god of fate or destiny.

The children were beautifully adorned, dressed in the style of Tlaloc and the Tlaloque. Puebla, mexico. Mesoamerican Worlds series. This was said to be one of the most Solitaire 2 festivals for the Aztecs. Like that of Tlaloc, her cult was linked to the earth, fertility and nature's regeneration.

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